The Crusader Period
The years 1200 - 1249
1202-04: The Fourth Crusade
1212: The Children's Crusade.
1218-21: The Fifth Crusade
1228-1229: The Sixth Crusade.
1248-1254: The Seventh Crusade
| | 1150-1188 | 1189-1199 | 1200-1249 | | 1300 and later |
this research is work in progress and is frequently updated
c. 1200: Foundation of the Order of San Jorge de Alfama.
By now the establishment of a network of preceptories within Europe allow the Templars to become a major European economic power with a reputation for providing reliable, honest and efficient financial services. The temples in London and Paris become treasuries patronised by the rulers of England and France. The Templars are becoming pioneers of international banking.
Muslim conquests in India started a decline of Buddhism in northern India, eventually resulting in its effective elimination in the nation of its origin.
French nobles gather at the court of Theobald III of Champagne for a tournament. Here Fulk of Neuilly promotes the Fourth Crusade and they agree to "take the cross," electing Theobald their leader. Saladin's brother, Al-Adil, takes control of the Ayyubid Empire.
1201: Death of Count Theobald III of Champagne, son of Henry I of Champagne and original leader of the Fourth Crusade. Boniface of Montferrat (brother of Conrad of Montferrat, an important figure in the Third Crusade) would be elected leader in Theobald's place.
Alexius, son of deposed Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelus, escapes from prison and travels to Europe to seek help in recovering his throne.
Even while negotiating with Europeans on a price for transporting Crusader to Egypt, Venetians negotiate a secret treaty with the sultan of Egypt, guaranteeing that nation against invasion.
1202: Albert, the third Bishop of Buxtehude (Uexk_?_ll), establishes the knightly crusading order known as the Swordbrothers (also sometimes referred to as the Livonian Order, Livonian Brothers of the Sword (latin Fratres militiae Christi), the Christ Knights, or The Militia of Christ of Livonia). Mostly non-landed members of the lower nobility, the Swordbrothers are separated into classes of knights, priests, and servants.
1202-04: The Fourth Crusade.
1202: Crusaders gather in Venice.
1202, November: Christians on the Fourth Crusade arrive at Venice in the hopes of being transported by ship, but they don't have the 85,000 marks required for payment so the Venetians, under doge Enrico Dandolo, barricades them on the island of Lido until he figures out what to do with them. Eventually, he decides that they can make up the difference by capturing some cities for Venice.
November 24: Fourth Crusade begins with the capture of Zara (in Dalmatia, a Christian port on the Dalmatian Coast) after a five day siege. The Crusaders do this at the behest of the Venetians, despite Zara's being a friendly city. Zara is a rival of Venice and the Crusaders owe the Venetians money. Pope Innocent III is infuriated by this and excommunicates the entire Crusade as well as the city of Venice, not that anyone seems to notice or care.
1202: Arthur of Brittany is defeated. Philip II of France continues Arthur's fight with England, and within the next three years increases his domain by annexing Normandy, Maine, Brittany, Anjou, Touraine, and Poitou.
1203: Crusaders abandon the city of Zara and move on Constantinople. Alexius Angelus, son of deposed Byzantine Emperor Isaac II, offers the Crusaders 200,000 marks and the reunification of the Byzantine Church with Rome if they capture Constantinople for him.
April 06: Crusaders launch an attack on the Christian city of Constantinople.
June 23: A fleet carrying Crusaders on the Fourth Crusade enters Bosphorus.
July 17: Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, falls to Crusading forces from Western Europe. Deposed emperor Isaac II is freed and resumes rule alongside his son, Alexius IV, while Alexius III flees to Mosynopolis in Thrace. Unfortunately, there is no money to pay the Crusaders and the Byzantine nobility are infuriated at what happened. Thomas Morosini of Venice is installed as patriarch of Constantinople, increasing the rivalry between Eastern and Western churches.
1204: Albert, the third Bishop of Buxtehude (Uexk¸ll), gets official approval from Pope Innocent III for his Crusade in the Baltic region.
February: The Byzantine nobility re-imprison Isaac II, strangle Alexius IV, and install Alexius Ducas Murtzuphlos, brother-in-law of Alexius III, on the throne as Alexius V Ducas.
April 11: After months of not being paid and infuriated at the execution of their ally, Alexius III, soldiers of the Fourth Crusade once again attack Constantinople. Pope Innocent III had again ordered them not to attack fellow Christians, but the papal letter was suppressed by clergy on the scene.
April 12-15: Fourth Crusaders capture and sack Constantinople; establishment of Latin Empire. End of the Fourth Crusade. (Some historians believe that the Crusaders took the Shroud of Turin (which later may have gone to the Templars) during the sack of the city). Both the Templars and their benefactor, Pope Innocent III, harshly criticize this Crusade because it diverts the Crusaders from aiding Palestine. But he does not hesitate to accept a formal reunion of the Greek and Latin churches. The city remains in Latin hands until 1261, when it is retaken by the Byzantines.
May 9: Baldwin of Flanders elected first Latin emperor of Constantinople. Philip II of France stops fighting England, after winning back all England's French lands. Eleanor of Aquitaine dies. Pope Innocent allows recruitment for the Livonian Crusade on a regular basis.
May 16: Baldwin of Flanders becomes the first Latin Emperor of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire and French is made the official language. Boniface of Montferrat, the leader of the Fourth Crusade, goes on to capture the city of Thessalonica (second-largest Byzantine city) and founds the Kingdom of Thessalonica.
1204-05: Conquest of the Peloponnese by Geoffrey of Villehardouin and William of Champlitte.
1205: April 01: Death (poisoned at St. Jean at Acre, buried in St. Sophia Nicosia) of Amalric II (Amaury de Lusignan), king of both Jerusalem and Cyprus. His son, Hugh (Hugues) I, made King of Cyprus under the regency of Gautier de Montbeliard, Amaury's brother-in-law. Amaury II's wife Isabella of Jerusalem dies, John of (d') Ibelin becomes regent for Amalric's daughter Maria for the kingdom of Jerusalem (even though Jerusalem is still in Muslim hands).
August 20: Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire, formerly the Byzantine Empire, after the death of Baldwin I.
1206: Gautier de Montbeliard fails to capture Adalia, breaking peace with Saladin. Premostratensian Abbaye de la Pais founded. By now Temujin (later known as Genghis Khan) is master of almost all of Mongolia. Danish Crusade to Fsel. Theodore I Lascaris assumes the title Emperor of Nicaea. After the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders, Byzantine Greeks spread throughout what is left of their empire. Theodore, son-in-law of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius III, sets himself up in Nicaea and leads a series of defensive campaigns against the Latin invaders. In 1259 Michael VIII Palaeologus would capture the throne and later capture Constantinople from the Latins in 1261.
1207: John Lackland of England refuses to accept Stephen Langton as archbishop of Canterbury and is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III. Pope Innocent III starts negotiating with Philip II of France to attack England, and closes down all the churches in England.
May: Raymond VI of Toulouse (descendant of Raymond IV of Toulouse, a leader of the First Crusade) refuses to assist in the suppression of the Cathars in southern France and is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III.
Boniface of Montferrat, leader of the Fourth Crusade and founder of the Kingdom of Thessalonica, is ambushed and killed by Kaloyan, Tsar of Bulgaria.
1208: Kyrenia castle built by Jean d'Ibelin. Hugues I marries Alix de Champagne. Pope Innocent III proclaims a Crusade against the Albigenses (Cathars, a religious sect) in Southern France. The Crusade continues until about 1229. Philip, duke of Tuscany and Swabia is murdered, just as it looks like he will succeed as Holy Roman Emperor. Temujin is proclaimed "Genghis Khan", (which means "Emperor within the Seas") starts his conquest of China. Albert, the third Bishop of Buxtehude (Uexk_?_ll), makes strong advances in the Baltic Crusade by forcibly converting the Kur and Lett peoples to Christianity. Albert and the Swordbrothers make great use of the fact that most of the tribes in the region are not on good terms with each other. The most effective means for advancing Christianity is to conquer one group, which would not be aided by anyone else, and then convince them to launch an attack on a neighbor whom they already disliked. In this manner one tribe after another was absorbed into Christendom.
January 14: Pierre de Castelnau, a papal legate in southern France who had been making some progress in converting Cathar heretics (also known as Albigensians) to orthodox Catholicism, is murdered. This sparks an outcry and, later this same year, a violent Crusade against the Cathar and the Waldenses in Southern France called by Pope Innocent III.
March 10: The Albigensian Crusade (1208-1226) begins two months after the murder of the Papal Legate, Peter of Castlenau (Castelnau), in southwestern France. The Crusade diverts resources from Palestine and permanently dampens the Crusading spirit in Europe.
1209-29: The Albigensian Crusade.
1209: St. Sophia Nicosia founded. Otto of Brunswick is crowned Otto IV of the Holy Roman Empire. Jul 22: Sack of Biziers.
June: Raymond VI of Toulouse agrees to the demands of Pope Innocent III that he act against the Cathars after finding that more than 10,000 Crusaders had gathered at Lyon to lay waste to Cathar areas in southern France.
July 22: The city of Beziers in southern France is sacked and its population of around 10,000 massacred by the Abbot of Citeaux during the Crusade against the Cathars. Caesar of Heisterbach, the papal representative, records Abbot Arnaud-Amaury saying "Caedite eos! Novit enim Dominus qui sunt eius" (Latin for "Slay them all! God will know his own.")
August 01: Crusaders arrive at the French town of Carcassonne, controlled by Raymond-Roger de Trencavel and believed to be a Cathar stronghold.
August 07: During the Crusader siege of Carcassonne the city's access to water is cut off. Raymond-Roger de Trencavel attempts to negotiate but is taken prisoner while under a flag of truce.
August 15: The city of Carcassonne surrenders to the Crusaders. Unlike at Beziers the citizens are not killed but they are all forced to leave. Raymond-Roger de Trencavel is executed and Simon de Montfort, commander of the Crusader army, assumes control of the city and surrounding region for himself.
December: Crusaders attack the castle of Cabaret, near the French town of Lastours. Pierre-Roger de Cabarat manages to hold out, however.
1210: Montbeliard exiled. Emperor Otto IV (called Otto of Brunswick) seizes papal territory and is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III.
March: Crusaders in southern France lay siege to Bram and, after capturing it, kill the Cathars living there.
July 22: Citizens of the fortified town of Minerve in southern France surrender to the Crusaders seeking out Cathars. Those who were willing to convert were allowed to do so but the 140 who refused were burned at the stake.
August: Crusaders in southern France trying to root out the Cathar movement lay siege to the town of Termes.
December: The town of Termes falls to the Crusaders after a siege that had lasted since August.
1211: Hugues I (Cyprus) comes of age, crowned in Nicosia. King of Hungary gives the Teutonic Order a march in Transylvania. Crusading Bishop Albert lays the cornerstone for Riga's Dome Cathedral. By this point much of modern-day Latvia had been converted to Christianity and German merchants are settling throughout the region.
March: Crusaders return to the castle of Cabaret and this time Pierre-Roger de Cabarat surrenders.
May: Crusaders capture the castle of Aimery de Montreal, hanging several knights and burning several hundred Cathars who had fought there.
June: Crusaders attempt to besiege the city of Toulouse, but they are short of supplies and must withdraw.
September: Raymond of Toulouse leads an attack against Simon de Monfort at Castelnaudary. Monfort is able to escape, but Castelnaudary falls to the Cathars and Raymond goes on to liberate over thirty Cathar towns in the province of Toulouse before his counter-Crusade peters out at Lastours.
1212, The Children's Crusade. Supposedly launched by the 12-year old French boy Stephen de Cloyes. More than 50,000 children are thought to have been sold into slavery, but many historians disbelieve that this Crusade ever occurred.
July: King Alfonso VIII of Castile expands the Reconquista.
July 17: King Sancho VII of Navarre win the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa.
Frederick, king of Sicily becomes Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II.
Emperor Otto IV, with King John of England's support, continues to fight for his crown, against both Emperor Frederick II, the pope, and France.
Crusade in Spain.
1213: John Lackland of England surrenders England to the pope, and receives it back as a fief. Apr: Pope Innocent III proclaims the Fifth Crusade. The Spanish and Albigensian Crusades are downgraded in favour of the eastern theatre of war.
Sep 12: Battle of Muret: Peter II of Aragon, I of Catalonia comes to the aid of the Cathars in Toulouse and Languedoc who are being harassed by Crusaders. Peter is killed and his army flees.
1214: John Lackland of England attempts to regain his lands in France and is defeated in France. Emperor Otto IV is defeated in the Battle of Bouvines, where France is established as a leading power of Europe. William the Lion of Scotland dies, and his son Alexander is crowned king. Raymond of Toulouse is forced to flee to England.
November: Simon de Montfort enters Périgord and captures the Cathar castles of Domme and Montfort.
1215, Dec: Pope Innocent III issues Ad Liberandum (CHECK: or the bull Quia Maior ?) calling the Fifth Crusade during the Fourth Lateran Council. Crusaders vow to protect the Holy Land. Innocent does not want European leaders to go off on the Crusade because in the past they had managed to mess things up by looking out for their own interests more than those of the church. Instead, Innocent hopes that individual Christians will answer his call and gather under his own command. Every crusader is promised an indulgence for their sins, even if they simply help fund the expedition and don't enter into any danger themselves. John Lackland of England is forced to sign the Magna Carta. A group of English barons offer Prince Louis (soon to be Louis VIII) of France the throne of England. He agrees and attempts to claim the throne but fails. Temujin (Genghis Khan) conqueres Yenking, the last Chinese stronghold in Northern China. Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in Toulouse.
Dec 14: The constitution Ad liberandum agreed by the Fourth Lateran Council, permitting regular taxation of the Church for Crusading.
1216: Italian Crusaders arrive at Acre. Frederick is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome by Pope Honorius III. John Lackland of England dies defending his throne and is succeeded by his son Henry III (aged nine) of England. During Henry III's minority the Earl of Pembroke rules.
April: Raymond of Toulouse and his son, both Cathar heretics, return to southern France, raise a large force from the various Cathar towns that had been captured by the Crusaders, and begin to strike back.
October 28: King Henry III of England takes the cross against English rebels.
1217 - 1221: The Fifth Crusade is launched as an attack on Egypt but it ultimately ends in failure.
There is great enthusiasm in Austria and Hungary; the king of Hungary had taken the cross as long ago as 1196. In return for the final cession of Zara the Venetians agree to transport the Hungarian army.
1217, The Swordbrothers, a Christian army first organized in 1202, invades the region which today makes up Estonia for the purpose of wiping out local pagan beliefs. Birth of Baldwin II, last Latin Emperor of Constantinople.
April 09: Peter of Courtenay is crowned Latin Emperor of Constantinople at Rome by Pope Honorius III.
Augustus: The Austrians and Hungarians assemble at Spalato to mount a Crusade against the Muslims. Leopold Vl of Austria sails at once and Andrew of Hungary leaves soon afterwards. Apart from a few French troops who embark at Brindisi the ports originally designated by Innocent III are hardly used. In the Holy Land (Acre) they are joined by John of Brienne, nominal king of Jerusalem, Hugh I of Cyprus, and Prince Bohemund IV of Antioch. Andrew II ends up leaving without accomplishing anything. German Emperor Frederick II wants to join, but he is barred by Pope Honorius III because he is already powerful enough to challenge the position of the papacy and Honorius doesn't want his power or popularity to grow.
September: Raymond of Toulouse recaptures the city of Toulouse from the Crusaders.
December: Hugues I persuaded by Andrew of Hungary to make an attempt on the fortress at Mount Tabor. Hugues retires to Tripoli after defeat. Hughes's son Henri born. Archbishop of Nicosia Eustorge de Montaigu. Prince Louis VIII of France returns to France and takes part in Crusades against the Albigenses, or Cathars. Alexander II of Scotland recognizes Henry III of England as his overlord.
1217-21: Atlit is built by the Templars.
1218, May 27- 1219, Nov 5: Fifth Crusaders begin the siege of Damietta (Damiette). Crusaders under the command of John of Brienne, king of Jerusalem, lay siege to the city of Damietta with the aid of a Frisian fleet. Even after they are reinforced and their numbers reach 35,000, they are outnumbered by 70,000 Muslims. In an interesting twist, the Crusaders form an alliance with Kay Kaus I, Seljuk Sultan of Rum in Anatolia. Kaus attacks the Ayyubids in Syria so that the Crusaders won't have to fight on two fronts. Hugues I de Lusignan dies at Tripoli. Henri I, son of Hugues I, made King of Cyprus and Lord of The Kingdom of Jerusalem, with Queen Alix as regent assisted by Phillipe and Jean d'Ibelin. Temujin (Genghis Khan) conquerors the Korean Peninsula.
1218: The Swordbrothers begin their conquest of Estonia. Al-Adil, Saladin's brother, is succeeded as Sultan of Egypt by his son Malik Al-Kamil.
June 25: Death of Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester and leader of the Crusade against the Cathars in southern France. Montfort had been attacking the city of Toulouse in order to recapture it from Raymond.
August 25: Crusaders laying siege to Damietta take one of the towers outside the city.
1219: Earl of Pembroke dies. Hubert de Burgh takes over as regent of England. The Crusaders take the Egyptian seaport of Damiette, and plan on attacking Cairo. Genghis Khan turns west into Khoresm (Turkish Empire). Danish Crusade to Estonia. Pope Honorius III sends Cardinal Pelagius of Albano to the Holy Land to lead the Fifth Crusade. Mongol armies led by Genghis Khan invade Muslim territories, reaching Persia by 1221 and are only stopped in Syria in 1260.
June 03: The French town of Marmande falls to the Crusaders.
November 05: The Crusaders' siege of Damietta finally succeeds.
1220: Latin clergy and nobility meet at Limassol: to prevent Cypriots joining minor orders in order to escape feudal duties. During the Baltic Crusade, Conrad of Masovia drives the pagan Prussians out of Chelmno Land. Muslim lands in central Asia begin to be overrun by the Mongols under Genghis Khan. The first places captured are Bukhara and Samarkand. During the Baltic Crusade, Conrad of Masovia drives the pagan Prussians out of Chelmno Land.
November 22: Pope Honorius III crowns Holy Roman Emperor Frederick in the expectation that Frederick would support the Church and participate in the Fifth Crusade.
1221: Alexander II of Scotland marries Henry III of England's sister Joan.
July: Crusaders under the command of Cardinal Pelagius set out for Cairo.
August: Fifth Crusade, in the Nile Delta: after a failed attack on Cairo the Crusaders (Aug 30: defeated at al-Mansura) are forced by Malik Al-Kamil to give up the Egyptian seaport of Damiette and return home. The Crusaders had been offered control of Jerusalem and other Christian sites in Palestine in exchange for the return of Damietta, but the Papal Legate Cardinal Pelagius refuses and turns a potential victory into a stunning defeat that effectively ends the Fifth Crusade.
1222: Limassol meeting rules confirmed in Famagusta under Papal legate cardinal Pelagius, bringing Orthodox church under further Latin influence. The Mongols under Genghis Khan head into Russia. Now in his seventies, John of Brienne travels to Europe in order to find a husband for his eleven-year-old daughter, Yolanda. The task is difficult because whoever marries her will rule the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. becoming not only responsible for what little remains of it but also for the recapture of the many cities controlled by Muslims - including Jerusalem itself. This is an honor that few desire, but Frederick II decides to accept, even though an actual marriage would not occur until she reached the legal age of 14. Death of Theodore I Lascaris, founder of the Byzantine Empire of Nicaea. He is succeeded by John III Ducas Vatatzes. Raymond of Toulouse, defender of the Cathars against the Crusaders, dies and his son Raymond takes over for him.
1223: Louis VIII of England succeeds his father as king of France. Pagans from the island of Saaremaa revolt against new Christian leaders, recapturing most of Estonia. They would lose it all again by the next year.
July 14: Philip II Augustus of France dies. Philip had been one of the leaders of the Third Crusade and leaves an inheritance of 50,000 marks to the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1224: Emperor Frederick II founds the University of Naples. Amaury de Montfort, leader of the Crusade against the Cathars, flees Carcassonne. The son of Raymond-Roger de Trencaval returns from exile and reclaims the area.
1225: Teutonic Order invited to Prussia.
October: Yolanda, Queen of Jerusalem. arrives in Brindisi with her father, John of Brienne, for her marriage to Frederick II of Hohenstaufen.
November: Raymond, son of Raymond of Toulouse, is excommunicated.
November 09: Frederick II of Hohenstaufen marries Yolanda (Isabella) of Jerusalem, daughter of John of Brienne, nominal king of Jerusalem. Many expected this marriage to turn the tide in Palestine against the Muslims. For years the local barons had been selling off their estates to the military monastic orders which did little to press the Christian cause against Islam.
1226: Louis IX succeeds his father as king of France (age 12), with his mother Blanche of Castile ruling as regent during his minority. Albigensian (Cathars) Crusade renewed.
1227: Phillipe d'Ibelin dies. (Check: where, date?). Henry III of England comes of age. Under pressure from Pope Gregory IX, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen starts off on a Crusade. Within the first week the Emperor falls ill and is forced to cancel the Crusade. Pope Gregory IX excommunicates him. Genghis Khan dies and his empire is divided among his three sons. Crusade authorized against heretics in Bosnia (renewed in 1234). Medieval theologian Thomas Aquinas is born. Aquinas codified Catholic theology in works like Summa Theologica, marking the high point of the medieval scholastic movement.
1228-1229: The Sixth Crusade is led by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, King of Jerusalem through his marriage to Yolanda, daughter of John of Brienne, king of Jerusalem. Frederick had promised to participate in the Fifth Crusade but failed to do so, thus he was under a great deal of pressure to do something substantive this time around. This Crusade would end with a peace treaty granting Christians control of several important holy sites, including Jerusalem.
1228, Baldwin II is crowned emperor of the Latin Empire in Constantinople, with John of Brienne as regent.
April 25: While in Palermo, Yolanda, Queen of Jerusalem. gives birth to Conrad, son of Frederick II of Hohenstaufen. The delivery is hard on the sixteen-year-old and she dies a few days later.
May 01: Death of Yolanda, Queen of Jerusalem. Yolanda was sixteen years old and had just given birth to Conrad, son of German emperor Frederick II. With her death, Jerusalem was now ruled by Frederick alone, a man with no blood ties to the first families that had captured Jerusalem and the Holy Lands. In effect, Jerusalem was now ruled by foreigners again.
June: Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, King of Jerusalem through marriage to Isabell (Yolanda), sails East on the Sixth Crusade (Amalric Barlais asked his aid on behalf of the queen against Jean d'Ibelin. Text: Philip de Novare: Les Gestes des Ciprois, The Crusade of Frederick II. Frederick deposes Governor d'Ibelin, imposes unpopular replacements) which failed but Frederick gets Muslims (i.c. the Egyptian Sultan Al-Kamil) to withdraw from Jerusalem and other Christian sites. St. Sophia in Nicosia completed. Queen Alix marries Bohemund V. Pope Gregory IX proclaims a Crusade against Emperor Frederick II.
June 28: Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen officially (and finally) sets forth on a Crusade.
July 21: Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen arrives in Cyprus to participate in the Sixth Crusade. An outbreak of fever among the Crusaders forces Frederick to return, but Pope Gregory IX doesn't accept this as a valid reason - besides, Gregory was looking for an excuse to punish Frederick because for years he had been infringing up on papal lands and power throughout Italy. Frederick is excommunicated and a Crusade is actually preached against him, with his lands around Naples occupied by the pope.
1228-29: The Crusade of Frederick II (last act of the Fifth Crusade).
1229, The Teutonic Order launches a Crusade to conquer Prussia. Death of Albert, the third Bishop of Buxtehude (Uex_?_ll). Albert had been a major driving force behind the Baltic Crusade.
February 18: John of Beirut invaded. Emperor Frederick II returns from the Holy Lands to defend himself from Pope Gregory IX's army. Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen signs a treaty with Sultan Malik Al-Kamil of Egypt and thus acquires controls of Jerusalem. Nazareth, and Bethlehem from Muslim forces. Al-Kamil had been impressed with Frederick's knowledge of Arabic language and culture, leading to a mutual exchange of ideas and respect which allowed the dramatic and unexpected peace treaty to be signed. In exchange, Frederick agrees to support Al-Kamil against his own nephew, al-Nasir. Frederick had been essentially forced to negotiate because at the time he had been excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX and most of the Crusaders in the region (for example, Patriarch Gerald of Lausanne, the Knights Hospitaller, and the Knights Templar) simply failed to obey his commands. Gregory refuses to accept the treaty as valid and doesn't support it.
March 18: Frederick II crowns himself king of Jerusalem in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Conrad IV of Germany had become titular King of Jerusalem the previous year with his father Frederick II as regent. Frederick's wife, Yolanda of Jerusalem and titular Queen of Jerusalem. had died the previous year, so Frederick took the crown for himself.
April 12: Peace of Paris ends Albigensian Crusade in Southern France. Teutonic Order begins conquest of Prussia.
May: Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen returns home and regains control of his lands around Naples from Pope Gregory IX.
August: Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen arrives at a peace treaty with Pope Gregory IX.
November: The Inquisition is established in Toulouse to eliminate the last of the Cathars hiding in the Languedoc region.
1229-31: James I of Aragon launches a Crusade in Spain, conquering Valencia and the Balearic Islands (Mallorca).
1229-33: Civil War in Cyprus, supporters of d'Ibelin defeated at Nicosia.
1229-53: Crusade in Spain.
1230: Returning Crusaders bring leprosy to Europe. John of Beirut defeated Frederick II's "bailis" on Cyprus. Supporters of d'Ibelin finally routed.
1231: Frederick II besieges Beirut. Constitution "Excommunicamus"of Pope Gregory IX starts the Inquisition. Crusade of John of Brienne in aid of Constantinople. Crusade of Ferdinand III of Castile in Spain.
1232: John of Beirut leaves Cyprus, for Beirut. Bailis regain control of Cyprus. John defeated at Casal Imbert, returns to Cyprus. Henry III of England dismisses Hubert de Burgh from his court and rules without the aid of ministers.
1232-34: Crusade against the Stedinger heretics in Germany.
1232-53: Conquest of Valencia by James I of Aragon.
1233: John of Beirut recaptures Cyprus. Isabelle de Lusignan marries Henri de Poitiers. Alice of Montferrat, wife of Henri I, dies. The Inquisition launches a ruthless campaign against the Cathars, burning any that they find and even digging up bodies to burn.
1234: The Teutonic Knights arrive in the Baltic region to assist in fending off invasions from pagan Prussians.
1235: Hugues III born.
1236: Plaisance de Poitiers made Regent of Cyprus and Jerusalem.
Henry III of England marries Eleanor of Provence.
Proclamation of a new Crusade in support of Constantinople.
June 29: Ferdinand III of the Christian kingdom Castile takes Cordoba (Cordova), controlled to the Moors.
1237: Peace of York establishes a boundary between England and Scotland. Emperor Frederick II's son Conrad IV elected King of the Romans. Teutonic Order absorbs Swordbrethren in Livonia. Death of John of Brienne, former regent of Jerusalem and Latin Emperor of Constantinople. His successor is Baldwin II. Batu Khan, son of Ghengis Khan, crosses the Volga river with an army of at least 150,000 horsemen. In short order he conquers all of the Russian principalities and defeats both the Hungarians and the Poles. Later he would be stopped from marching right into the heart of Europe only by the news of his father's death, causing him to immediately return home.
May 12: By decree of Pope Gregory IX, the crusading order "The Swordbrothers" is merged into the order,"The Teutonic Knights." Both orders had been heavily involved in Crusades against pagan Prussians; the Swordbrothers, however, had experienced numerous defeats (especially at the Battle of Saule in 1236) and their growing weakness necessitated that they join with the Teutonic Knights.
1237 - 1240: The Tartars under Batu invade Russia.
1238, Malik Al-Kamil, Sultan of Egypt and nephew of Saladin, dies.
Oct 9: On the Feast of St. Denis, James I, Count-King of Catalonia and Aragon, takes Valencia City, in southeastern Spain. This opens up the entire region to the Christians, who create the Kingdom of Valencia out of the former taifa Muslim kingdom. This enormous territory, half the size of Aragon and Catalonia put together, puts James on an equal footing with his Castillian, Léonese, and Portuguese rivals on the peninsula.
Alexander II of Scotland's wife Joan (brother of Henry III of England) dies. Sometime after Alexander II marries Mary of Coucy.
1239: Proclamation of the Crusade against the Emperor Frederick II (renewed 1240, 1244). Swedish Crusade to Finland led by Birger Jarl.
February 18: The truce between Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen and Sultan Malik Al-Kamil, signed to end the Sixth Crusade, officially ends.
1239-40: Crusade in aid of Constantinople.
1239-41: The Crusade of Thibaut of Champagne.
1240: Popes Gregory IX and Innocent IV call Political Crusades against Emperor Frederick II. Safed is starting to be rebuilt. Mongols capture Moscow and destroy Kiev. The Sultan of Egypt agrees to turn over control of all lands west of the Jordan earlier captured by Saladin to the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
October: Raymond-Roger de Trencavel is defeated at Carcassonne by Crusaders going after Cathars.
1240-41: The Crusade of Richard of Cornwall.
1241: Alexander II of Scotland's wife Mary of Coucy gives birth to a son, who would later be Alexander III. Proclamation of the Crusade against the Mongols (renewed 1243, 1249). The first person recorded to be hanged, drawn, and quartered in England is pirate William Marise.
April 09: Battle of Wahlstatt (Polish: Legnickie Pole): A Crusade against the Mongols is proclaimed after the Teutonic Knights and Henry II the Pious, duke of Poland, are defeated by the Mongols. Mongol leader Batu Khan, son of Ghengis Khan, is only stopped from continuing into the heart of Europe by the news of his father's death, causing him to immediately return home.
1242: First Prussian Revolt against the Teutonic Order.
April 5: Battle on Lake Peipus (Chudskoye): Russian forces under Prince Alexander Nevsky utterly defeat an army of Teutonic Knights on the frozen Lake Peipus.
1243: The Sultan of Syria and Egypt offers to withdraw Muslims from the Temple Mount area in Jerusalem in order to get the Franks to support him.
1244, March 16: Montsegur, the largest Cathar stronghold, falls after a nine month siege.
July 11-Aug 23: Fall of Jerusalem to the Khorezmian Turkish horsemen (the Khwarismic Turks or Tartars; Khwarezmia is at this time a state located around the Aral Salt Flats near the Caspian Sea). Theyand destroy the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; the end of the Christian rule. Large numbers of the city's inhabitants are slaughtered.
October 17: Battle of La Forbie (near Gaza) as a Templar disaster. A combined force of Khorezmians and Egyptians destroy the Frankish army. 200-300 Templar knights are killed. Egyptian forces are commanded by Baibars, a Mamluk soldier who would later lead a revolt against the Egyptian Sultan and take control of the region.
1245: Pope Innocent IV deposes of Emperor Frederick II. Teutonic Order permitted to wage a permanent Crusade in Prussia. King Louis IX of France (Saint Louis) declares his intent to launch a Crusade against the Muslims in the Middle East. By this point the Crusade against the Cathars in southern France is basically over and his relative Alphonse was in charge in Toulouse.
1246: Hughes I's wife Alice, Queen of Jerusalem, dies.
Pope Innocent IV releases the Cypriot king from his feudal oath to the Holy Roman Emperors.
The papal fraction in Germany elect Henry Raspe as Emperor.
1247: Egypt captures Jerusalem from the Khorezmians.
1248, October: Aachen taken by Crusaders engaged against Frederick II.
November 23: Seville taken by Ferdinand III of Castile. Muslim control of Spain is reduced to the Kingdom of Granada which survives for over two more centuries.
1248-1254: The Seventh Crusade: (First Crusade of 'St. Louis', King Louis IX of France) departs for the Holy Land. Assemble in Cyprus, Limassol. The Master of the Temple, Guillaume de Sonnac, is among the Frankish leaders awaiting him there; his mother rules France as regent. The Great Khan even sends representatives to Louis to let him know that he is willing to help in the conquest of the Holy Land and the restoration of Jerusalem to Christian control - in reality, though, the Mongols were negotiating with both sides and had no intention of helping anyone. In this, his first of two Crusades, Louis would end up capturing the Egyptian city of Damietta, but it was given up as ransom when he himself was captured during the battle for Cairo.
Henry Raspe dies, and William of Holland is elected Emperor.
1249, June: Seventh Crusade leaves for Egypt.
June 06: King Louis IX of France reaches and occupies the Egyptian seaport city of Damietta. Louis focuses first and foremost on Egypt rather than sites in Syria because he hopes that this will provide a solid base from which to attack the rest of the Holy Land.
November: King Louis IX of France begins to march his troops from Damietta to Cairo.
Alexander II of Scotland dies on board a ship while trying to take the Hebrides from Norway. His seven year old son, Alexander III of Scotland becomes king.
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